Telecommunications means remote transmission of information.
At the dawn of human civilization, to communicate was used smoke signals, the mirrors that reflected the sun’s rays, then the couriers on horseback, pigeons, and so on, but you can really talk about long distance transmission of information, both well as on cable, only with the invention of the TELEGRAPH and the MORSE code occurred in America in 1837 by Samuel Morse, painter and inventor, which allowed to transmit signals with a dot and line code through the prairie of the Wild West by using a single copper wire supported by wooden poles.
With the invention of the Morse Telegraph the British Empire, then the largest economic and military power of the globe, could communicate in real time any information from the colonies scattered from Canada to Australia and India with London though with codes made up points and lines on paper strips.
A big breakthrough came in 1871 with the patent of Telephone work of Antonio Meucci, Italian emigrated to America, then taken over by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 but improved it, creating a whole system of telephone networks that spread from America slowly to all the world.
It allowed the phone to hear the distant voice instead of the simple sign of the telegraph line and point.
However the birth of Telecommunications is everywhere made to coincide with the invention of the radio by Guglielmo Marconi, young Bolognese inventor who in 1885, just twenty years old in his father’s estate of Grifone in Pontecchio Bologna, managed to convey to about two kilometers away a radio signal is received beyond a hill.
Actually Heinrich Hertz already in 1888, on the basis of the four equations that James Clerk Maxwell wrote in 1865, had transmitted electromagnetic waves a few meters away, within his university laboratory, and especially between two neighboring points and without obstacles in between but not understand the importance of the discovery.
Marconi, had a life of honor, fame, and be well-off.
He moved everywhere with his yacht, the Elettra, with which supplied demonstrations wherever that amazed the world public opinion.
On March 26, 1930 by the Elettra docked in Genoa, the scientist turns on the lights of the town hall of Sydney.
He was the one to make the first transmission of radio waves across the Atlantic 12 December 1901.
The invention of the radio modernize the world telecommunications system allowing broadcasts without the need for physical connections materials often impossible.
It is 1935 and the invention of RADAR, which marked a date of importance both historical and military certainly decisive during the Second World War, also for shipping and aviation.
The laser, the optical fibers, photodiodes, phototransistors, have allowed the 70 onwards the use of fiber optic connections,
and then broadband throughout the world, together with the satellites artificial which currently cover the equatorial zone of the earth to 36,000 km away and allow intercontinental direct connections in real time.
Although the first London experiments predate the Second World War, the color television was born in the US in 1954 and Europe in 1963 with the PAL standard, much better than American NTSC.
Already during the landing in Sicily of 1943 American soldiers they were equipped with mobile phone, but only appears in the USA in 1984 the first generation cellular system, rudimentary, soon followed by various standards.
In Europe we see the ETACS in 1990, analog cellular telephone, digital the GSM in 1995, the second generation because of the many innovative and improving change, the UMTS third generation video phone that can transmit sounds that both broadband and low video power.
In 2010, we still see the IPHONE: computers, cell paintings band, mp3 player, recorder, display, videophone.
The rapid evolution of electronic technologies applied to telecommunications are to predict future progress even unthinkable time ago but now one step away from realization.